By G. J. Heij, T. Schneider
This publication comprises the implications and conclusions of intensive study at the factors and results of acidification of forests/forest soils and heathland within the Netherlands. In 1985 the Dutch precedence Programme on Acidification was once begun with the intention to supply a extra concrete shape to the expanding curiosity of policy-makers within the results of pollution on ecosystems particularly. within the final 3 years, the study has interested in acquiring a extra actual estimate of the emission of ammonia at the deposition of SOx, NOy and NHx, and in addition on quantifying results on woodland and heathland ecosystems. This quantification of results integrated experimental paintings version analyses, and derivation of severe rather a lot and degrees for woodland and heathland ecosystems. moreover, situation analyses have been made with the Dutch Acidification platforms version (DAS) to be able to overview the effectiveness of coverage measures. The study itself, which shaped the root for this booklet, has been defined within the experiences on person tasks. A precis of the clinical effects and conclusions is given in thematic studies (added as annex).
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Additional info for Acidification Research in The Netherlands: Final Report of the Dutch Priority Programme on Acidification
1 both the measured as well as estimated emission factors for housing are listed. The measured factors are generally lower than those calculated by the Werkgroep, except for pig stables (partly slatted floor). The calculated emission factors are based on - 42 - assumptions regarding the evaporation rates of NH3 from the manure under different conditions. The comparison with the measurements from the experiments clearly demonstrate that the uncertainty in the calculated emission factors is very large.
Information on the emissions due to industrial processes is collected within the framework of the National Emission Inventory. 2 gives the emission developments during the period 1965 - 1988, based on calculations of Thomas and Erisman (1990). As can be shown from this figure, the ammonia emission has stabilized in the eighties due to the manure legislation and milk quotation, after a strong increase from 1950 to 1980. -m E 150 100 50 0 I I I I I 1950 1960 1970 1980 1988 year Fig. 3 the spatial distribution of the animal N H 3 emission in the Netherlands for the year 1988 is presented (Erisman, 1989).
The emission factors (De Winkel, 1988, Van der Hoek, 1989), being the emission rate per source or activity, have been calculated up to now from the nitrogen mass balance, following the nitrogen flow from the "mouth to the surface". A distinction in factors is made between housing and storage emissions, emission due to manure spreading and emissions from grazing. Emission from sources other than livestock is taken directly from inventories made by Buijsman et al. (1984) and Erisman (1989). Because few measurements were available concerning emission of ammonia from the different systems of livestock production and manure handling, within the Dutch Priority Programme on Acidification, attention was focused mainly on the measurement of the ammonia emission.
Acidification Research in The Netherlands: Final Report of the Dutch Priority Programme on Acidification by G. J. Heij, T. Schneider