By David A. Peterson
This e-book provides the 1st systematic typological research of applicatives throughout African, American Indian, and East Asian languages. it's also the 1st to handle their capabilities in discourse, the derivation in their semantic and syntactic houses, and the way and why they've got replaced over the years.
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Additional resources for Applicative Constructions (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory)
A-ka-zu? a-ka-zu? l-piak (66) naŒ-ma? kayma? a-n´-zu? ’ (68) *naŒ-ma? a-Ø-zu? ’ 12 One might wonder whether these examples are representative of transitives, given the semantics of the verb. l is as transitive a verb as ‘kill’ or ‘beat’ in Hakha Lai. 26 Applicative Constructions (69) *kay-ma? a-Ø-zu? ’ As shown in these examples, when the benefactive object is either a Wrst or a second person, and the patient is a third person (see (64) and (65)), the -piak construction may be used as expected.
Usually signals the addition of a speciWcally malefactive or allative object. A verb–hno? complex, however, is rarely given such a simple interpretation. -hno? also usually indicates some kind of malice or harmful intent on the part of the subject towards the object it introduces, violent action, etc. Some examples are seen in (36)–(38), the last of which is from connected text. n-hno? ’ (37) rul¼ni? a? -hno? ii then 3p poss-father deic 3sS-direc-3sO-Xy2-mal¼conn ‘Then it [a tiger] pounced on their father and .
N-naak (102) kheeŒ tsewmaŒ¼ni? ’ and even as in (103) and (104), where the undislocated object occurs with a discourse deictic. uk tsewmaŒ¼ni? ’ Two Case Studies 33 (104) kheeŒ tsewmaŒ¼ni? ’ Thus, there appears to be a strong preference for dislocation of the instrumental object over dislocation of the base object. e. association of the applicative object with a discourse deictic) are met. 4 Reciprocalization The ability of an object to be understood as reXexive or reciprocal with the subject has sometimes been taken to be an indicator of objecthood.
Applicative Constructions (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory) by David A. Peterson